EVA is a way of measuring a firm's profitability. EVA is NOPAT minus a charge for all capital invested in the business (Byrne 1). A more intuitive way to think of EVA is as the difference between a firms NOPAT and its total cost of capital (Kramer & Pushner 40). Stern Staurt's numerical definition of EVA is calculated for any year by multiplying a firm's economic book value of capital © at the beginning of the year by the spread between its return on capital ® and its cost of capital (K): EVA=(Rt-Kt)*Ct-1 (Kramer &Pushner 41). EVA is a notion of residual income (Ehrbar Xi). Investors demand a rate of return proportional to the amount of risk incurred. Operating profits determine residual income by plotting them against the required rate of return, a product of both debt and equity. EVA takes into account all capital invested. Peter Druker says in his Harvard Business Review article, "EVA is based on something we have known for a long time: What we call profits, the money left to service equity, is not profit at all. Until a business returns a profit that is greater than its cost of capital, it operates at a loss. Never mind that it pays taxes if it had a genuine profit. The enterprise still returns less to the economy than it devours in resources.Until then it does not create wealth but destroys it" (Ehrbar 2). EVA is a measure of wealth creation or destruction after all costs are capitalized. .
Companies use EVA as a measure of corporate performance, as an incentive system and as a link between shareholder and management/employee goals. Stock price indicates investor's certainty concerning current and future earnings potential. EVA is a static measure of corporate performance; MVA is a dynamic, forward looking market performance measure. "MVA is a market generated number calculated by subtracting the Capital invested in a firm © from the sum (V) of the total market value of the firm's equity and book value of debt: MVA=Vt-Ct" (Kramer & Pushner 42).