1. Both traditional and progressive views of education take into account the needs of the student, the teacher, and the role of the curriculum. However, traditional and progressive forms of education differ greatly in their approach. In a traditional classroom, the teacher is an authority figure. The format of instruction is lecture-based with minimal opportunity for democratic participation although some question and answer sessions may follow the lecture. The teacher alone formulates the curriculum and students offer little if any input into the lesson plans. A traditional lesson plan will not include trendy issues or matters of popular culture. On the other hand, a progressive view of education espouses a highly flexible curriculum that can be creatively changed by teacher or student to reflect social trends or popular culture. Rather than the lecture format, the classroom may foster democratic discussion and encourages participation by students. Both the traditional and progressive views have pros and cons, benefits and drawbacks.
2. These quotes refer to the persistence of change, the nature of reality, and the relativity of human values. Reality is largely a human construct and highly subject to change via interpretation. For example, a human being ascribes meaning to a rose: it is not just a red flower but is endowed with symbolism. Our views of reality change rapidly, concurrent with changing social values and norms. The acquisition of knowledge occurs largely as a function of the individual interacting with his or her environment.
Children learn through interacting with other people because human beings are social creatures. Critical thinking and critical inquiry are at the heart of education. Education is also a continual and limitless process: young children are innately curious about the world in which they live. Education can therefore foster social and psychological growth.
Morality springs naturally from educati...