Tundra is a large region located in the northern hemisphere of the world. It is also known as the "Barren Land" and it lies principally along the Arctic Circle, on the coast and islands of the Arctic Ocean, and to the north of the coniferous forest belt. In Canada, the southern boundary extends from the Mackenzie Delta to southern Hudson Bay and northeast to Labrador. In north Siberia the tundra is the wildest area and it reaches as far north as 60 latitude.
For most of the year the mean monthly temperature of the tundra region is below freezing and the growing season averages only 2 weeks per year. The tundra has long and severe winters and short summers. The winters consist of strong winds and blizzards while the summers are relatively warm. But, even in the hottest days of July the temperature does not rise above 10C. Although there are relatively high temperatures in the summer days, the ground never thaws due to the fact that the subsoil is permanently frozen, this is known as permafrost. Precipitation is spread evenly during the year and is slight, varying from 20cm - 30cm. Due to its northern location the tundra gets varied amounts of sunlight at different times of the year. In the summer, the sun remains above the horizon 24 hours a day for up to 85 consecutive days, and in the winter, the sun remains below the horizon 24 hours a day for as long as 67 consecutive days.
Permafrost limits the rooting depth of plants and forces surface water to drain before it can seep into the soil. Because of this, extensive marshes and lakes are formed. During the summer, sedges, mosses, and lichens appear, along with some flowering plants. Due to the heavy winds, there is an effective seed dispersal of tundra plants.
Some of the few animals that inhabit the tundra are the Caribou, the arctic fox, the snowshoe rabbit, the polar bear, and the lemming. In Russia's tundra there is a small human population mostly consisting of the