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The ego, a word that is arbitrarily used by mean, has a quite distinct and significant meaning. Ego development is an aspect of psychology that has been discussed by a number of authors and psychologist. Many different authors have concluded a variety of theories behind the ego and its many stages and its effects upon one's personality. According to Zimbardo (1992) Freud's theory showed that personality differences arise from the different ways in which people deal with their fundamental drives. To explain theses differences, Freud pictured a continuing battle between two antagonistic parts of the personality, the id and the superego. The id is conceived of as the storehouse of the fundamental drives. The superego is considered to be the storehouse of an individual's values, including moral attitudes learned from society.
This researcher, a supporter of Freudian psychology and Freudian theory of psychoanalysis, to be unbias will be difficult. This researcher will try to present both the supporters as well as the critics to Freud's theory of the connection between the ego and personality as best possible. One must not evaluate or criticize Freud's theories or to examine them in comparison with other theories unless one completely understands all of the proposed psychological theories.
Zimbardo (1992) states that Freud's work assumes that one's personality is shaped and behavior is motivated by powerful inner forces. In addition, Zimbardo suggests that "...Freud's theory of personality boldly attempts to explain the origins and course of personality development, the nature of the mind..." The total personality consists of three systems, the id, the ego, and the superego. In a mentally healthy person, the three systems work in harmony and unity together to form one complete organization. The harmony enables one to create positive transactions with the environment. On the other hand, if the systems are fighting with each other, one is said to be maladjusted and dissatisfied with himself and with the world. The function of the id is to provide for the immediate discharge of quantities of excitation, including energy or tension, that are released in the person by internal or external stimulation. The earliest form of the id is a reflex system that releases immediately by motor pathways any sensory excitations reaching it.
...when a very bright light falls upon the retina of the eye, the eyelid closes
and light is prevented from reaching the retina. Consequently, the
excitations that were produced in the nervous system by the light quiet
down and the organism returns to a quiescent state.
If all the tensions that occur in an organism could be alleviated by reflexes, then any psychological development beyond that of the simple reflex would be unnecessary and not needed. However, this is definitely not the case; an example is when hunger contractions appear in the stomach of a baby, the contractions do not produce food. Actually, they produce crying and restlessness, which indicates to one that the baby must be fed or over time, the baby would die from starvation. Through t
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Freud, Zimbardo, Loewenstein, Novy, Adams, Rickman, Frank, Erikson, Ascione,
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