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Vietnam lasted from 1959 to 1975. It involved the North Vietnamese and the National Liberation Front or NLF. It also included the U.S. and the South Vietnamese forces. From about 1946 to 1945 the Vietnamese had struggled for independence from the French during the first Indochina War. When the war ended the country was split into two creating North and South Vietnam. North Vietnam soon came under the control of Vietnamese Communists who really hated France and were looking to unite Vietnam under Communist rule. South Vietnam was controlled by Vietnamese leaders who favored the French.
The reason that the U.S. entered the Vietnam War was fear of the "Domino Effect". The Domino Effect is the term used to explain that if one country falls under Communist rule than soon after the countries in that area will soon fall also. If Vietnam became a Communist state than it was likely that more could fall also. This is also why the U.S. supported South Vietnam. The U.S. didn't send troops in until 1965. They were sent in to keep the South Vietnamese government from collapsing but in the long run they eventually failed.
When Ngo Dinh Diem came into power he used very repressive measures. These measures led to growing organized opposition within South Vietnam. Another problem was that Diem's government represented a small minority of Vietnamese who were mostly businessmen, Roman Catholics, large landowners, and others who were pro-French. At first the United States helped South Vietnam military advisors and financial assistance. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was what eventually gave President Linden B. Johnson permission to escalate the war in Vietnam.
President Johnson felt that he had to take a forceful stance on Vietnam so that other Communist countries wouldn't think that the United States "lacked resolve". Johnson also believed that the key to success was to frighten North Vietnam's leaders with the possibility of full-scale United States military intervention. In January of 1964 Johnson approved of top-secret, covert attacks against North Vietnam, including commando raids against bridges, railways, and coastal installations. After reports of North Vietnamese gunboats attacking United States NAVY war ships Johnson went on air to get approval from the public of an attack on Vietnam. Soon after Congress gave Johnson the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave him war-making powers until such time as "peace and security" had returned to Vietnam. On March 8, 1965, 3500 U.S. Marine troops landed in da Nang. Soon after about 74,000 combat troops arrived.
When some of the soldiers of the U.S. 9th Marine Regiment landed in da Nang in March 1965, their orders were to protect the U.S. air base, but the mission was quickly changed to include search-and-destroy patrols of the area around base. This corresponded in miniature to the larger strategy of General William Westmoreland. Westmoreland, who took over the Military Assistance Command in Vietnam (NACV) in 1964, wanted to establish a large American force and then unleash it in big sweeps. This strategy was called attrition- eliminating or wearing down the enemy by inflicting the highest death toll possible. There were 80,000 U.S troops in Vietnam by the end of 1965, by 1969 there would be 534,000.
Quotes talked about in this paper
- General Westmoreland then ordered the largest search-and-destroy operations of the war in what was called the "Iron Triangle", ...
- President Johnson felt that he had to take a forceful stance on Vietnam so that other Communist countries wouldn't think that the United States "lacked resolve".
Terminology referenced in this essay
Names talked about in this research paper
General Westmoreland, President Johnson,
Organizations talked about in this paper
the NLF, United States Marines,
Locations included in this research paper
The Vietnamese, United States, North Vietnam, Vietnam,
Keywords mentioned in this research paper
Vietnam, South Vietnam, United States, North Vietnamese, South Vietnamese, Tet Offensive, Westmoreland, vietnam war, the vietnam war, american forces, North Vietnamese troops, Ho Chi Minh trail, general, Communist Vietnam, Vietnamese New Year, Saigon, civilian casualties, air war, stale mate, da nang, Dang Valley, Domino Effect, United States Defense Department, United States military, United States NAVY, William Westmoreland, Joint Chiefs, United States Army, United States Marines, first indochina war, Ngo Dinh Diem, strategy, general maxwell taylor, Communist countries, Communist state, General Creighton Abrams, Henry Cabot Lodge, Tonkin, Viet Minh, air base, guerillas, military advisors, hit and run tactics, My Lai, demilitarized zone, search and destroy, death toll, Roman Catholics, good excuse, Earle Wheeler,