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Flannery O'Connor is known for her regional, Christian, gothic, grotesque writing. We see all these elements in her short stories. Flannery O'Connor's fiction generates strong reactions because of her use of the gross and grotesque. According to Gilbert Muller, "Flannery O'Connor began writing about the grotesque because she could, and she readily admitted it in a letter to James Farham. O'Connor explained, Essentially the reason my characters are grotesque is because it is the nature of my talent to make them so" (21).
I think that Flannery O'Connor uses the grotesque in her writing because it shocks readers and makes them realize the moral point she is expressing. I feel that the application of the grotesque comes from her religious background and viewpoints. However, it is not just a gothic view of the grotesque. There is also a touch of humor in her writing. I think she mostly uses grotesque aspects to demonstrate the diminished state that her characters are in and how far they have to go for redemption. Muller states that, "Flannery O'Connor was successful in character depiction because she realized that the grotesque was the ideal vehicle for objectifying fears, obsessions and compulsion" (21).
Flannery O'Connor took everyday situations and confrontations, such as a visit to the doctor's office and filled it with horror. I think that she used these everyday encounters to help her readers visualize that these typical horror scenes surround us. According to Muller, "O'Connor's characters are induced to distortions in character and that the individual is floundering in a sea of contradictions and incongruities (27). Muller also goes on to say that the typical grotesque character in O'Connor's fiction is an individual who projects certain extreme mental states which, while psychologically valid, are not investigations in the tradition of psychological realism" (22). Often I found that the main characters of her stories thought themselves to be superior to others, not realizing their lack of compassion until the desperate ending of the story.
According to Muller, "Miss O'Connor's typical grotesque character, is a demonic and as such embraces as wide a moral range as characters, created through the techniques of psychological realism (23). Muller states that the grotesque protagonist is fated, obsessed and driven by demons" (23). I would have to disagree with Muller's statement that the protagonists are driven by demons. I feel that most of her characters are blinded by the narrow mindedness of society during that time period. I don't think O'Connor's characters are influenced by demons, but rather they are confused about their Christian thoughts and views.
According to Muller, "Hazel Motes in "Wise Blood" is an example of Flannery O'Connor's grotesque protagonist (28). Muller states that Hazel Motes is a young man continually buffeted by the incredible, by the essence of the grotesque vision of the world" (23). I feel that in the creation of Hazel Motes, Flannery O'Connor perfected the grotesque protagonist. Hazel is a fanatic. His nature is opposed to grace. He is obsessed with Jesus to a degree that is not normal. Hazel tries desperately to deny his fundamentalist background to the extreme.
According to Marshall Gentry, "O'Connor's characters, inhabit the territory held by the devil and are generally considered to be grotesque (4). Gentry states that their grotesque state reflects and increases the characters' separation from God and their spirituality" (4). I do not necessarily believe that O'Connor's characters inhabit the territory of the devil or that their grotesque state separates them from God. Her characters are lost in their search for redemption. They continually are in search of God and their spirituality but are misled by society's views. They then are led astray by false assumptions.
According to David Eggenschwiler, "O'Connor uses the grotes
Quotes talked about in this paper
- O'Connor stated, "I see from the standpoint of Christian orthodoxy. This means that for me the meaning of life is centered in our redemption by Christ. I describe the subject of my fiction as the action of grace in a territory held largely by the devil" ...
- Muller states that, "Flannery O'Connor was successful in character depiction because she realized that the grotesque was the ideal vehicle for objectifying fears, obsessions and compulsion" ...
- Muller states that "O'Connor's work is comical in the sense that she uses the grotesque in an exaggerated form (6). He also states that the grotesque character is either exerting himself against the absurd or is part of the absurd and therefore is comical" ...
- Muller makes that I agree with is the fact that "O'Connor uses an exaggerated form in development of her characters" ...
- Muller states that "O'Connor's uses of caricature that frequently establishes a comic rhythm partaking of the incongruous, the irrational, and the grotesque (10). Muller comments that some of the more "memorable' characters who are thus caricatured are Tom T. Shiftlet, the shifty and shiftless prankster in The Life You Save May Be Your Own and his prospective mother-in-law Lueynell Crater, whose name reflects a wasteland environment; Mr. Paradise, a pig-like encarnation of the devil and Joy Hopewell, the cynical and atheistic cripple in Good Country People, who by the end of the story is the benefit of joy, hope and well being" ...
- Muller stated, "O'Connor emphatically denied that she utilized violence and the grotesque as a gothic contrivance, because gothic fiction had no moral foundation and no moral vision (77). He goes on to say that violence and grotesque in O'Connor's fiction forces the reader to confront the problem of evil and because O'Connor's uses violence to shock her readers, it becomes the expression of sin in her stories and work" ...
- Gentry states that "O'Connor was aware of the positive qualities in the grotesque in her statement in "A Memoir of Mary Ann" that " a new perspective on the grotesque had occurred to her as she learned about the child, who had a tumor on the side of her face"
- Gentry wrote, "O'Connor's characters use the positive grotesque to realize that they can transform the grotesquerie into a force for redemption (15). According to Gentry, O'Connor took it as her artistic enterprise to transform images of negative grotesquerie into part of a redemptive process. Gentry also states that O'Connor produced work after work in which the grotesque reveals itself conclusively as redemptive (18). He goes on to say that O'Connor's characters generally have to annihilate themselves to conclude the grotesque process in redemption" ...
Names referenced in this research paper
Flannery O'Connor, Gilbert Muller, Marshall Gentry,
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Keywords included in this paper
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