Management has many different approaches within the organization. At the institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, Renis Likert and colleagues proposed that Management styles could be classified into one of four different systems:
System 1 - "Exploitive Authoritative"
System 2 - "Benevolent Authoritative"
System 4 - "Participative Group"
I learned different management styles, while taking a management course and was highly interested in them. I decided to do my research on Likert's systems of management because of my previous knowledge and interest on the subject. I was interested in learning, in further detail, the different ways that companies can be managed.
Likert's first book about management styles, New patterns of management, was written in 1961. This book mainly supported the other books that I used for this research. Likert talks about the authoritative form of organization which has decision making from the top, and the participative form of organization which has decision making widely throughout the organization. A ten page chart, "Organizational and Performance Characteristics of different Management Systems Based on a Comparative Analysis," is presented which is broken down into seven main parts: (1) Character of motivational forces, (2) Character of communication process, (3) Character of interaction-influence process, (4) Character of decision-making process, (5) Character of goal-setting or ordering, (6) Character of control processes, and (7) Performance characteristics (later character of leadership was added). This chart is organized as is four discrete kinds of organizational systems exist, of which fall at four points of a suggested continuum: Exploitive authoritative, Benevolent authoritative, Consultative, and Participative group. "(The chart) oversimplifies the situation. The four different systems re... Continues...