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Systemic is "...characteristics of the structure and dynamics of electoral competition" as defined by Carlene Edie. This implies according to Edie that system is in a stricter sense referring to a stable pattern of interacting parts.
Patrick Emanuel defines party "...an association of people under a specific name whose primary purposes are the achievement and exercise of governmental power." To ensure governmental power there is regularly held elections and the successful party will receive this ultimate power. The success of a political party is characterised by: the leadership; the structure and organization combined with features of charisma or rational-legality; ideology and plans espoused from time to time through their manifesto.
Also, another characteristic of political parties is the sustainability of the political party. For example, about 20 parties have established themselves as durable, which may be due to their association with trade unions. The Jamaica Labour Party initially was hardly a political party, its founder Alexander Bustamante was more focused on his Trade Union. It was really the union that converted itself into a party to contest the first Universal Adult Suffrage election in 1944.
And finally, the electoral performance as measured by the numbers of elections contested, the numbers of candidates nominated, votes received, and seats won1. The parties that were loosely formed did not last. Generally, one or two parties dominated each country and also have governed in any territory. For example, in Jamaica the two main political parties are Peoples National Party and the Jamaica Labour Party. Bustamante was said to be a militant anti-socialist and demagogic populist. The alliances were a mixture of conservative's individual whose political interest was not about policies and ideology but instead loyalty to Bustamante this is according to Carl Stone3.
Democracy may be used in a variety of ways but its original meaning as found in the encyclopedia, is a form of government where the right to make political decisions is exercised directly by the whole body of citizens, acting under procedures of majority rule. The citizens rights are exercised through representatives chosen by and responsible to them. Also, the powers of the majority are exercised within a framework of constitutional restraints designed to guarantee the minority in the enjoyment of certain individual or collective rights, such as freedom of speech and religion.
Trade unions initiated the democratic process in the fight against poverty and the inhuman way the plantation owners treated their workers. And so, many political parties in the Anglophone-Caribbean were transformed from trade union. For example, Robert Bradshaw of St. Kitts-Nevis and Eric Gairy of Grenada started their careers as trade unionist and later went into politics. These parties were in the forefront of nationalism and helped the poorer class to believe they had a voice in the decision-making process. Also democracy is extended to the party operations. In Jamaica for example, Stone suggested that the two party's operation were in contrasts. Bustamante ran the JLP as if it were his private estate, while Manley tried to create democracy in his party.
Political parties were formed between the period 1938 and 1960 in the Caribbean. It was in that period that the existing political parties came to be, this was as a result of universal adult suffrage. The right to vote impacted heavily on the people, which also impacted on the success of the political parties. As suggested by Mr. Buddan (lecturer) in that period parties were respected for their role as founding institutions of Caribbean politics. The parties were important also, in the context of the emergence of democracy in the region. They integrated new and immature electorate into the emerging political order.
Since adult suffrage, each country in the Caribbean has developed its own way of competing for and enjoying political office. Jamaica and Barbados history show cases of regular alternation. For example, Jamaica up until the last election held in 1997 when the PNP won 50 of the 60 seats in parliament there existed a "two-term only" trend. In Barbados the Democr
Terminology mentioned in this term paper
Names referenced in this report
a militant anti-socialist and demagogic populist, Norman Manley, Carlene Edie, Patrick Emanuel, garrison, Robert Bradshaw, Dr. Trevor Munroe, Michael Manley, Eric Gairy, Mr. Buddan, Carl Stone3, Bruce Golding, Owen Arthur, Stone, Edward Seaga,
Organizations talked about in this research material
Jamaica Labour Party, parliament, Democratic Labour Party, Peoples National Party, National Democratic Movement, coalition government,
Locations referenced in this paper
Caribbean, Jamaica, Barbados, Grenada, exceptions, United States, Montserrat, United Kingdom,
Keywords included in this paper
political parties, political party, Jamaica, trade unions, Jamaica Labour Party, Caribbean, political system, political leaders, party systems, Bustamante, adult suffrage, democratic process, universal adult suffrage, Peoples National Party, Alexander Bustamante, political patronage, political reform, political office, political process, single party, decision making process, policies, westminster systems, radical change, National Democratic Movement, structure and dynamics, competitive democracy, majority rule, electoral process, Democratic Labour, Caribbean region, overall majority, ultimate power, participatory politics, electoral systems, Norman Manley, societies, Michael Manley, Barbados, Edward Seaga, Trevor Munroe, Eric Gairy, coalition government, proportional representation, governmental, Bruce Golding, multi party system, Westminster model, human rights, Owen Arthur,