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In this paper, evidence will show how ozone layer depletion is a problem. Harmful chemicals, produced by man, and nature, effect the ozone layer, a part of the earth's atmosphere. The earth has environmental problems, and ozone layer depletion is just one of them.
The ozone layer is a layer of irritating, corrosive, colorless gas that absorbs 97-99% of the sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is damaging to life on earth. ( Sparling, "Ozone Depletion") Ozone layer depletion's history dates back to as early as 1956. In 1956, the first ground based measurements were taken in Halley Bay, Antarctica. The in the 1970's, satellite measurements were started. The first comprehensive worldwide satellite measurement happened in 1978 with the NIMBUS-7 satellite. The NIMBUS-7 carried on it two things, the TOMS (total ozone mapping spectrometer), and the SBUV (solar backscatter UV meter). The NIMBUS-7, along with other instruments, measured the amount of chlorofluorcarbons in the atmosphere. Chlorofluorcarbons were
first created in 1928 as a non-toxic, non-flammable refrigerant, by a commercial company called DuPont. CFC-12 was the first type of chlorofluorcarbon (1 single carbon w/ 2 chlorines, & 2 fluorine's) created. (Sparling, " Ozone Depletion, History & Politics") M.J. Molina and F.S. Rowland published a lab study in 1974 demonstrating how CFC's breakdown ozone when a high frequency of UV light is present. Based on this study, an estimation of about 7% of ozone would be depleted in the next years, lead to the U.S. banning CFC's in aerosol sprays. Slowly after, other nations agreed to ban CFC's in aerosol sprays. In addition, the most recent world resolution, the Montreal Protocol, was based on negotiations between European-Scandinavian countries and the United States over CFC's in the fall of 1983. The Montreal Protocol was signed in the fall of 1987. The protocol has gone through revisions, named after the city where the committee met. The last revision was made in Copenhagen in November of 1992.This revision was the most strict for the world to date. This revision was signed by over 100 nations, which represents 95% of the world's current CFC consumption. This protocol laid out the plans for a phase-out of CFC's and related halocarbons by 2030. In November of 1990, a Clean Air Act was signed into law. This law instructs industries to regulate the use of class 1 and 2 halocarbons. In addition to this act, the Omnibus Reconciliation Acts and the 1990 Floor Stocks Tax imposed taxes on the use, storage, and importation of listed CFC's and halons. These acts encouraged industries to stock and use halocarbons less harmful to the ozone layer. In 1988, Sweden was the first country to completely phase-out CFC's by 1994. (Sparling, "Ozone Depletion, History & Politics") The U.S. along with other nations have come together to help resolve an environmental crisis, that is slowly depleting a crucial part of th
Terminology mentioned in this term paper
Harmful chemicals, Clean Air Act, car emissions,
Sports mentioned in this paper
Names talked about in this research paper
Sparling, P. Zuer, Burgdorf, S.F. Singer, Bornman, M.J. Molina, F.S. Rowland,
Organizations referenced in this research material
TOMS, National Academy of Sciences,
Locations mentioned in this research paper
United States, Montreal, Halley Bay, Antarctica, New York, Copenhagen, the first country,
Health Conditions included in this term paper
skin cancer, cataracts, lung cancer, melanoma,
Companies mentioned in this research paper
Keywords included in this research paper
ozone, ozone layer, ozone depletion, ozone layer depletion, total ozone mapping spectrometer, ozone hole, skin cancer, aerosol sprays, hydrochloric acid, solar radiation, measurement, Sparling, problems, high frequency, hydrogen chloride, air conditioner, Montreal Protocol, human beings, environmental crisis, controversial issue, stratosphere, Clean Air Act, photolysis, no problem, man made, New York State, chlorine, harmful, methyl chloride, plants and animals, many questions, volcanic eruptions, halocarbons, natural, waxy cuticle, photochemical smog, carbon tetrachloride, lung cancer, human immune system, birth defects, chemicals, molecules, large, Global warming, good idea, hot summer, satellite, lung diseases, United States, National Academy,