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The unhappiness in China laid in its problems, which arose during the early twentieth century. Until the early twentieth century, China's rule was based on dynasties, which followed Confucian theories. The Chinese thought of their nation as the center of the world, disclaiming any interest in the west. Already during the nineteenth century, China had been weakened through foreign trade, war and influence. As the situation started to go worse, the people wanted to alter the situation and showed resistance to the foreigners in the Boxer's Rebellion. This Rebellion and its aftermath prompted some reforms in China, however, it was too little, too late. The Qing dynasty was seen to be failing the people of China. In 1908, the Dowager Empress, CiXi, died and her three year-old grand nephew, PuYi, was proclaimed emperor. The discontent even grew further, and several groups, such as the Tongmengui organized to overthrow the Qing.
Sun Yatsen (a member of Tongmenghui) was announced the provincial president of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912. Still. he was forced to resign from his post because of Yuan Shikai, who organized the abdication of the Qing emperor in return for his own appointment as president. At that time, a new revolutionary party Guomindang was formed. This party believed in parliamentary democracy and the principle of electing the officials. Yuan disagreed with GMD's ideas and outlawed it in 1913. One year later WWI broke out in Europe and Japan took advantage of the outbreak. By 1915, Japan invaded Quindao and confronted Yaun Shikai with a list of twenty-one demands. These demands were not only exceptionally harmful to the economy but they were also seen as extreme humiliations to the Chinese people. Meanwhile, the central government came under the rule of Gen. Yuan Shikai, who died in June 1916 before he could consolidate his power as Emperor. After Yuan Shikai death, Sun Yatsen took over the nation. He promoted modernization and the "revolt against obedience." When the WWI ended the Chinese assumed their allies would reward them. In 1919, when at Versailles the allies decided not to reward China, the people were outraged. Due to rejection of the reward, they developed a New Culture movement, which was pro democracy and education, but rejected Confucianism and "the old ways." Furthermore, they declined the democratic systems of Great Britain and France(1).
A rebellion, called May 4th Movement took place, demanding a more Socialist system. At this stage, the Soviet regimes and their withdrawal from the war started to appear to the Chinese. Two years after the Treaty of Versailles, in 1921, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was set up in Benijing and Paris, with leaders Mao Zedong and Chou Enlan(2).
In sum, the Chinese had lived in insecure conditions, of which some are due to major problems and disruptions after European penetration in early nineteenth century. Therefore, the people were looking for a government, which would bring solutions and put a final end to their struggle. The mistakes of Kuomingtang's policies and action caused for the Communists to come to power, they gained peasants' sympathy and put them into an even more positive view of themselves to the people. At the beginning the GMD sought to bring about a democratic revolution. Their socialist leader, Sun Yatsen, therefore introduced three principles, Nationalism, Democracy and People's livelihood. His idea of Nationalism consisted of a strong central gov
Quotes talked about in this paper
- "revolt against obedience." When the WWI ended ...
Terminology mentioned in this research paper
Names talked about in this research material
the communist leader, General Chiang Kai-Shek, Sun Yatsen, Yuan,
Organizations included in this essay
Chinese Communist Party, GMD, Chinese Democratic Party, WWI, Chinese society, ‘Red Army,
Locations mentioned in this paper
the Chinese, Republic of China, Japan, Shanghai, Nanjing, Great Britain, Europe,
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Keywords talked about in this research paper
China, Chiang Kai Shek, Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, the peoples, twentieth century, intellectuals, Yuan Shikai, civil war, qing dynasty, Chinese Democratic Party, World War, nineteenth century, central government, land reforms, Chinese people, military tactics, Chinese Nationalists, Communist regime, Second World War, World War II, Chinese provinces, Japanese atrocities, nation, policies, problems, leadership, New Culture movement, parliamentary democracy, the communist party, revolution, democratic revolution, pro democracy, socialist leader, foreign trade, twenty one demands, tactical defeat, solution, Shanghai massacre, taxes, left wing, social revolution, guerrilla warfare, thousand miles, young radicals, guerilla warfare, a list, a minor, political advisor, local self government,