The Four Approaches to Community Sociology

            The four approaches to community sociology include: Typological, ecological, systems, and theory. They all have some influence on how we see the world today in a community based realm. .

             The typological approach begins with the ideas of Tonnies. His foundation began with the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. Tonnies explains that there has been a transition in the world from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft. The rise in industrialization and social change identifies this transition. Tonnies unlike his predecessors has actually done field research on the matter to prove his theory. Basically, individualistic and capitalistic attitudes developed. Some strengths of this idea include empirical research has proven that there are differences in areas of a city or country. People in different areas see things differently and depending on the length of residency in that area makes a difference in their outlook. Another strong point about Tonnies' theory is that it has allowed for change to occur in the areas where it was possible for change to better the economy and living conditions. Some weaknesses of this theory are the fact that it isn't very broad in the sense that there are so many other possibilities to explain why areas and the economy have changed so much over the years. This approach seems to focus on the micro-level of sociology. Dewey explains that it is too narrow of a subject and it can't move any farther. He says that it is time to move on to the broader areas of what sociology really should focus on, the big picture. This theory separates and breaks down certain areas to examine the people and their way of life in that area. It doesn't show how it affects them in the broader scheme of things. "the real query is, do we have a better initial answer than the folk-urban continuum to the general question of how to account for the similarities and differences observable among societies”?(Minor 1952).

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