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The typological approach begins with the ideas of Tonnies. His foundation began with the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. Tonnies explains that there has been a transition in the world from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft. The rise in industrialization and social change identifies this transition. Tonnies unlike his predecessors has actually done field research on the matter to prove his theory. Basically, individualistic and capitalistic attitudes developed. Some strengths of this idea include empirical research has proven that there are differences in areas of a city or country. People in different areas see things differently and depending on the length of residency in that area makes a difference in their outlook. Another strong point about Tonnies' theory is that it has allowed for change to occur in the areas where it was possible for change to better the economy and living conditions. Some weaknesses of this theory are the fact that it isn't very broad in the sense that there are so many other possibilities to explain why areas and the economy have changed so much over the years. This approach seems to focus on the micro-level of sociology. Dewey explains that it is too narrow of a subject and it can't move any farther. He says that it is time to move on to the broader areas of what sociology really should focus on, the big picture. This theory separates and breaks down certain areas to examine the people and their way of life in that area. It doesn't show how it affects them in the broader scheme of things. "the real query is, do we have a better initial answer than the folk-urban continuum to the general question of how to account for the similarities and differences observable among societies"?(Minor 1952).
This question leads to the kinds of problems, issues, or questions that are appropriate for the investigation of the typological approach. Talcott parsons and his idea of pattern variables became important because it builds off of Tonnies theory of Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft. Affective neutrality, whether the gratification of change is immediate or gradual throughout time, is one of his questions in the transition of social change. Relationships between people have an effect according to parsons. Are they holistic or narrow and constrained to only a single basis of interaction. Basically, Parsons believes that there is more to just the two ends of the continuum in Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft and that there is a broader mixture along his idea of the pattern variables that develop.
Why is there a movement towards Gesellschaft? Capitalism is a
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Talcott parsons, Duncan, a liberal conflict theorist, Hawley, Marx, Dewey, Durkheim, Burgess,
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ecology, Chicago School,
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community, theory, Tonnies, ecology, social change, new idea, neo orthodox, Conflict approach, urban structure, explains, new approach, gemeinschaft and gesellschaft, old people, systems theory, Marxist theorists, Talcott parsons, pattern variables, concentric zones, capitalism, urban environment, competition, labor costs, deals, better life, living conditions, mechanical solidarity, ecological, Marxist analysis, everyday life, field research, empirical research, economic development, sociocultural, factorial, nation states, group actions, business district, small businesses, the approach, capitalists, picture, questions, society, organization, factory, Park, capitalistic, individualistic, Suburbanization, industrialization,