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Valls defines terrorism as political violence done to persons or property committed by nonstate actors. It must be politically motivated for any other form of violence is considered crime and subject to domestic laws. He adds violence against property to include attacks that would be considered terrorism even though they do not harm people. An example of this would be the bombing of an abortion clinic. When he limits the violence to nonstate actors, he doesn't deny the existence of state sponsored terrorism. He states that this type of violence is a matter of domestic justice, and in cases outside its borders, just war theory can be applied.
With this definition he attempts to avoid two difficulties. He does not prejudge the issue by characterizing terrorism as something intrinsically wrong, which is what Walzer seems to do. How can there be serious discussion about a normative issue if it is already defined as unjustifiable? He also attempts to avoid making his definition stipulative.
I would argue that Valls' definition is too broad with respect to his contention that it is nonessential to include fear or intimidation as a deliberate strategy of terrorism. Of course if this provision were added, it would weaken his argument by disqualifying many cases of nonstate violence. Held's definition is very similar to Valls', but Held adds that "creating fear is usually high among the intended effect." (Valls 565) It is important to note that under this definition, creating fear is not necessary for an act to be ter
Quotes talked about in this paper
- Held adds that "creating fear is usually high among the intended effect." ...
Names mentioned in this research paper
Walzer, Held, Holmes,
Organizations mentioned in this paper
a likely candidate, UN,
Locations talked about in this research paper
Andrew Valls, Cambodia, Iraq, bello, U.S., Beirut, South Africa,
Keywords included in this research paper
just war theory, Valls, political violence, terrorist, jus ad bellum, actors, UN general assembly, political rhetoric, political leaders, requirements, domestic laws, civilian casualties, ordinary language, just cause, abortion clinic, sovereign states, marine barracks, clear line, unintended effects, freedom fighter, collateral damage, French colonialists, Northern Iraq, modern warfare, South Africa, common good, double, indiscriminate, regimes, standard, guerillas, presents, Holmes, spectrum, interests, denunciation, intimidation, illegitimate, racist, initiates, defensible, rightly, the definition, reasonable, monopoly, Kurds, wage, Beirut, Vietcong, accountability,