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History has shown that women tend to outlive men. There have been and still are many misconceptions as to what factors contributed to this trend. Although women outlive men, the data on different longevity is certainly persuasive. In western countries women live an average of five to ten years longer than men. Much of the difference is explained by the risk-taking phenomenon: young men are much more likely than young women to die from road accidents, warfare, sports injuries and suicide. In general men are more likely to take risks that women normally wouldn't.
Middle-aged men have a higher mortality from coronary heart disease than women, and many more die from lung cancer, reflecting the sex difference in smoking. Even at the age of 65 life expectancy is higher for women than for men, when the hormonal advantage of being a woman have long since disappeared (except for those taking long term hormonal replacement therapy) and the risk taking difference should be less important.
Although women may live longer that doesn't necessarily mean that the quality of their health is better. Women go through menstruation monthly. There are of course physical symptoms to that occur such as back pain, clumsiness, abdominal cramps, headaches and poor concentration. These symptoms are pretty harmless, however there are severe forms of PMS, such as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Between 40 and 75 percent of all menstruating women experience symptoms that occur before or during menstruation. PMS has a wide range of symptoms: some as minor as a change in appetite, others so severe that they may greatly interfere with daily life. Only 3 to 7 percent of women experience the PMDD. These symptoms can last between 4 to 10 days and can have a substantial impact on a woman. In fact some women have to go so far as to go to psychiatrists because the symptoms can be so severe that they really interfere with everyday life. Of course there are many forms of treatments such as hypnotherapy, reflexology, acupuncture, and acupressure. So although men do take bigger risks, most of the time they are able to take care of themselves without the use of a doctor, women however aren't so lucky, they cant choose not to have menstruation. Another thing women can't really choose not to have is a baby, and no matter how many joys it brings, a pregnancy comes with it's own share of problems.
Other than the fact that it is possible to die during childbirth there are a ton of other problems that come with it. Some women develop gestational diabetes, which is a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Like other forms of diabetes, gestational diabetes involves a defect in the way the body processes and uses sugars (glucose) in its diet. This type of diabetes however, has many characteristics that are different form other forms of diabetes. In gestational diabetes the pancreas is not at fault, instead the problem is in the placenta. During pregnancy the placenta provides the baby with nourishments. It also produces a number of hormones that interfere with the body's usual response to insulin. This condition is called "insulin resistance". Most women don't suffer from this but if a woman's pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, blood levels of glucose stay abnormally high, and the woman is considered to have gestational diabetes.
About 1 to 3 percent of women develop this disease. Although the prognosis for women and their babies is good, nearly 50 percent of these women develop a permanent form of diabetes within 15 years. There is no way to prevent it. (Barthalomew, Sallie P. "Make way for baby" 1997.) (Gale encyclopedia of medicine, author Rosal
Quotes talked about in this paper
Terminology referenced in this essay
placenta, hypnotherapy, immune systems, metabolic rate,
Names talked about in this paper
a distinguished geneticist, Dr. Srecher, Lara Lynn Lane, Anne Stone, Anne D. Walling, Sallie P, S Dewitt, Estelle Ramey, Rick Miller, Bruce Jancin, Professor Ursula Hittwoch,
Organizations included in this research material
Cleveland clinic foundation, Education Institute,
Locations talked about in this research paper
New Orleans, America,
Health Conditions talked about in this research material
gestational diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lung cancer, headaches, heart attacks, multiple sclerosis, depression, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia,
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Keywords talked about in this paper
risk factors, gestational diabetes, disease, immune system, young women, hormone, 100 women, outlive, young men, metabolic syndrome, chromosome, the immune system, insulin resistance, sex differences, life expectancy, a woman, Y chromosome, autoimmune disease, coronary heart disease, coronary artery bypass surgery, symptoms, pregnancy, Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, This condition, testosterone, body mass index, menstruation, American Family Physician, so lucky, weight gain, Cleveland clinic foundation, metabolic rate, coronary disease, gender differences, sex hormones, much more, x chromosome, long term, Cyril Clarke, sex differentiation, road accidents, western countries, everyday life, long haul, lung cancer, infectious diseases, sports injuries, blood levels, nineteenth century, Anne Stone,