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Among young people, the short-term health effects of smoking include damage to the respiratory system, addiction to nicotine, and the associated risk of other drug use. Long-term health consequences of youth smoking are reinforced by the fact that most young people who smoke regularly continue to smoke throughout adulthood. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people---A report of the Surgeon General. 1994, p. 15)
Smoking hurts young people's physical fitness in terms of both performance and endurance---even among young people trained in competitive running. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people, p. 28)
Smoking among youth can hamper the rate of lung growth and the level of maximum lung function. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people, p. 17)
The resting heart rates of young adult smokers are two to three beats per minute faster than those of nonsmokers. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people, p. 28)
Among young people, regular smoking is responsible for cough and increased frequency and severity of respiratory illnesses. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people, p. 9)
The younger people start smoking cigarettes, the more likely they are to become strongly addicted to nicotine. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people, p. 9)
Teens who smoke are three times more likely than nonsmokers to use alcohol, eight times more likely to use marijuana, and 22 times more likely to use cocaine. Smoking is associated with a host of other risky behaviors, such as fighting and engaging in unprotected sex. (CDC. Preventing tobacco use among young people, p. 36,104)
Smoking is associated with poor overall health and a variety of short-term adverse health effects in young people and may also be a marker for underlying mental health problems, such as depression, among adolescents. High school seniors who are regular smokers and began smoking by grade nine are
2.4 times more likely than their nonsmoking peers to report poorer overall health
2.4 to 2.7 times more likely to report cough with phlegm or blood, shortness of breath when not exercising, and wheezing or gasping
3.0 times more likely to have seen a doctor or other health professional for an emotional or psychological complaint.
The PHS guideline, "Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: A Clinical Practice Guideline," contains evidence-based information about first-line pharmacologic therapies (bupropion SR, as well as nicotine gum, patches, inhalers, and nasal sprays) and second-line therapies (clonidine and nortriptyline). It also highlights new evidence about how telephone counseling can help patients quit.
"There has never been a better time for health professionals to help their patients break free from the deadly chronic disease we know as tobacco addiction," said David A. Satcher, MD, Assistant Secretary for Health/Surgeon General. "Starting today, every doctor, nurse, health plan, purchaser, and medical school in America should make treating tobacco dependence a top priority."
The guideline is aimed at practicing clinicians. Studies have shown that more than 25 percent of U.S. adults smoke and that 70 percent of them would like to quit. Of those smokers who try to quit, those who have the support of their physician or other health care provi
Quotes talked about in this paper
Technology referenced in this essay
Names talked about in this research paper
David A. Satcher, Dr. Fiore, Michael C. Fiore, MD,
Organizations included in this paper
CDC, The tobacco cessation guideline, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin Medical School's Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, American Medical Association, U.S. Public Health Service, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Institute on Drug Abuse,
Locations referenced in this term paper
United States, America, Madison, MD,
Health Conditions referenced in this research paper
the uncontrolled growth, cancer, cough, nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, depression, heart disease, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, bronchitis, tumor, headaches, diabetes, fever,
Drug talked about in this report
nicotine, cocaine, bupropion, clonidine, aspirin, nortriptyline, ibuprofen,
Keywords included in this report
young people, tobacco use, lung cancer, drugs, chemotherapy, anticancer drugs, smoking, guideline, health, smoke, symptoms, medical school, blood cells, health effects, lung function, tobacco smoke, Clinical Practice Guideline, chronic disease, cancer cells, health care, the lungs, National Cancer Institute, Disease Control, cough, catheter, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, health care provider, smoking cessation, vomiting, nausea, bleeding, blood pressure, patient, blood clots, side effects, American Medical Association, mental health, persistent cough, health plan, coughing, nicotine, Public Health, heart disease, chronic bronchitis, disease prevention, respiratory system, nicotine gum, unprotected sex, breath, digestive tract,