The Islamic Republic of Pakistan was established under traumatic circumstances. Pakistan (Land of the Pure) was carved from British India, first by partition in 1947 and later by war with India in 1971. Pakistan is one of the world's major Islamic nations. It is the only remaining trace of the Mughal Empire of Islamic rulers from whom the British extracted control in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), one of the several leaders and thinkers, having insight into the Hindu-Muslim question was the first to propose the separation of Muslim India. The most clear description of the inner feeling of the Muslim community was given by Allama Muhammad Iqbal in his Presidential Address at the All-India Muslim League Session at Allahabad in 1930. He suggested that for the healthy development of Islam in South-Asia, it was essential to have a separate Muslim state at least in the Muslim majority regions of the northwest. Later on, in correspondence with Mohammad Ali Jinnah, he included the Muslim majority areas in the north-east also in his proposed Muslim state. Very few even among the Muslim welcomed the idea at the time. It was took a decade for the Muslims to embrace the demand for a separate Muslim state.
Three Round Table Conferences were convened in London during 1930-32, to resolve the Indian constitutional problem. The Hindu and Muslim leaders, who were invited to the conferences, could not draw up an agreed formula and the British Government had to announce a "Communal Award" which was incorporated in the Government of India Act of 1935. Before the elections under this Act, the All-India Muslim League, which remained dormant for some time, was reorganized by Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who had returned to India in 1934, after being gone about five years in England.
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was a strong force in South-Asia representing the Muslims. The All-India Mu...