If you can conceive of a God, does it prove one must exist? If we cannot see a moral truth does that mean, it can't be? Are we one universal humanity or are we differentiated individuals? These are some of the questions that caused the development of Scholasticism, the intellectual discipline which sought to bridge the gap between religion and reason.
Scholastic Philosophy is the love, desire and pursuit of wisdom. Taken in its broadest sense, it includes the knowledge of all things in as far as they can be known, by the light of reason. This science has six parts: Logic, which teaches reasoning; Metaphysics, the philosophy concerned with the study of the nature of beings; Cosmology, which explains the visible world; Anthropology, which explains man; Natural Theology, which explains God; and Moral Theology, the religious study of right and wrong. [Scholasticism]
Early universities were the first representation of the spread of Scholasticism and philosophy. They brought together the great minds of the age and allowed scholars to be educated. They lay the foundation for our school systems today, combining many teachers in different areas of study to teach students, rather than expecting one teacher to know everything.
The first period influencing Scholasticism, the classical period, was the time before Christ. This was a period of effort and struggle, where many teachings were false. Leo XIII once said, "Even those who are considered the wisest of ancient philosophers, but who had not the gift of faith, erred most grievously in many things. They often taught, along with many truths, things false and absurd." [Rise of Scholasticism] However, these philosophers laid the groundwork for future philosophers to express their ideas.
Plato and Aristotle were the first philosophers to start organized universities and had great impact on the development of scholasticism. "Intellectual life needs not only teachers and stu...