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"Media is used to provide information to large audience, such as the general public. These forms of media include newspapers, magazines, motion pictures, radio, television and new media."
From the mankind's earliest days, humans have tried to transmit ideas to one another in a clear and easy way. First such an exchange took place in the form of inter-personal communication. One person told another person something. While this was good for small groups such as families and small villages or tribes, the growth of human population made it necessary to change the structure. The difference that the mankind chooses was the mass communication. The transfer of one idea to many people, started way before 3500BC, however the beginning of mass communication and journalism is with the Sumerians.
In the first 5000 years of journalistic history, innovation came slowly. However, the discovery of paper by the Chinese and the improvements in literature by the Greeks allowed for better innovations later. "A printing press can not exist without something to be printed, and without something to be printed upon".
In the 250 years after the innovation of the printing press, western printers began to grow and expend their influence. Gutenberg with his press began a printing revolution. Also in Germany, over 1590 years after Gutenberg, a regularly printed newspaper appeared for the first time. In 22 years, one form of mass communication was born on the pages of a French newspaper.
This fact clearly shows how many people look for information and news. In addition, the beginning of printing press gave way to advertising to have an important place as it now enjoys; its origins start on the pages of a French newspaper 400 years ago.
In 1639, the first printing press came to colonies, and within 100 years the colonies had many newspapers. The desire for information was stronger in colonies, than Europe, simply because people in the colonies lacked information in all kinds. In addition to number of newspapers, the colonies also faced a growth in book publishing in a degree that was never experienced in any European state. But the most significant development was the establishment of a public library in Charleston, South Carolina at the beginning of the 18th century.
In the first half of the 18th century, newspapers began spreading all over the colonies. They began by reporting, but later became a source of information and critique. This critique helped notions of freedom and independence to spread among colonies. American Revolution, which took place in the final quarter of the 18th century, is evidence to this fact.
One of the most important American traditions, the political cartoons found a place in these newspapers, used to affect change of opinion. "The first political cartoon was Franklin's "join or die" cajoling colonists to join against the French in 1754." The importance of Benjamin Franklin can not be neglected. He was America's first Renaissance man. In his youth, he succeeded in using mass communication as a tool of propaganda for his ideas on revolution. His works produced in this period were profound, however he was successful in using the materials provided by the early innovations.
Printing exploded in this time period, but so did other media.
Until the 19th century mass communication heavily depended on transportation. A message could only be sent by a ship or train, on horse back or even in the memory of human
Quotes talked about in this paper
Terminology mentioned in this research paper
wireless transmission, Morse Code, Big Three,
RadioStation mentioned in this paper
Names included in this report
The first political cartoon, Gutenberg, Alexander Graham Bell, President Woodrow Wilson, Paul Nipkow, John Logie Baird, Guglielma Marconi, Adolf Hitler, Philo T. Farnsworth, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Samuel F.B. Morse.,
Organizations referenced in this term paper
National Association of Broadcasters, Royal Academy of Science,
Locations included in this research material
United States, Europe, Germany, Charleston, Greece, South Carolina, America, Atlantic Ocean, Maryland, Washington D.C., North America, Baltimore, London,
Companies included in this report
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Radio Corporation, General Electric Company, American Telephone & Telegraph Company, DuMont Television Network, MBC, Paramount Pictures, ABC, CBS, Zenith Corporation,
Keywords talked about in this report
mass communication, broadcasting, radio, United States, general public, printing press, radio broadcasting, radio stations, American President, political cartoon, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, complex system, commercial broadcasting, General Electric, World War, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, DuMont Television Network, telegraph, innovations, interpersonal communication, Alexander Graham Bell, commercial radio, General Electric Company, John Logie Baird, World War II, new media, American television, American inventor, American Revolution, television industry, telegraph line, direct democracy, one form, first time, public library, Benjamin Franklin, 400 years, Woodrow Wilson, freedom and independence, Morse Code, 100 years, a device, tool, information, undersea cable, Golden Age, Adolf Hitler, election campaigns, Paul Nipkow, long distance,