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Throughout the course of time, Ireland has suffered manylosses. Ireland has been conquered, invaded, repressed, and tormented over manycenturies. Because of Ireland's isolation and separation from the rest of the world,Irish history is very rich. Although Ireland had to live apart from the world,the people prevailed as a community that was, and still is very influential tothe rest of the world. Ireland has a very interesting social culture. Thepeople and the community of Ireland are very unique. It is important to studythe history, the ways of life, and the culture of Ireland because of theinfluence that Ireland has had on the United States.
"Ireland is a country in north-western Europe that occupiesthe greater part of an island lying to the west of Great Britain" (BritannicaOnline). Because oceans surroundIreland, the geographic isolation has helped to develop a rich heritage ofculture and tradition that was linked initially to a separate language. "Thesmallness of the country makes for homogeneity and helps explain the nation'sdistinctive character" (Britannica Online). The history of Ireland is one ofrepression and invasion. Even though Ireland has been invaded, conquered, andcolonized, there is hardly an ethnic distinction. "Neolithic
people spread throughIreland around 3400BC, replacing an earlier Mesolithic race of hunters, andintroducing agriculture" (Microsoft Expedia.com). "In Ireland, Celticinfluence, beginning about 400 BC forged cultural unity: a common language, anda rich oral tradition of poetry and song: laws that reflected customs andvalues of the entire island population; and a distinctive artistic style usedin stone carvings, sculpture, and metalwork that continued to influence artiststhrough the Middle Ages" (Delaney, 1989).
"St. Patrick arrived in Ireland about 432, founding churchesand converting many of the Irish people to the Catholic religion" (MicrosoftExpedia.com). The Vikings were intrigued by the prosperity of the Irishmonasteries and began to invade Ireland and create the first towns. In 795, theNorsemen invaded Ireland, and then in 1014 they were defeated. "In 1171, therecognition of Henry II as lord of Ireland and the linking of the church to a foreignadministration terminated the independence of Gaelic Ireland and reduced thecountry to a position of subordination for centuries to come" (BritannicaOnline). Henry II sent an Anglo-Norman army to conquer Irish land so that themajority of the island would be under British rule. There was an Irish revoltin the 14th century. "England's Henry VIII seized control of theIrish Church and made himself king of Ireland" (Microsoft Expedia.com).
Queen Elizabeth I encouraged English settlement in Ireland,and soon English and
Scottish Protestants settledin Irish land. Catholic landowners rebelled, once again, and were punished bythe British Parliament. The country was devastated in the 1940's by The GreatPotato Famine. After the famine, many emigrated, and others revolted againstthe government.
The first culture is the Republic of Ireland. They are the"true Irish." The Unionists of the Republic of Ireland are independent from therule of Britain. The people are nationalists, republicans, and Catholic. Thereare 3 1/2-4 million people that live in the Republic of Ireland. Dublin is themost important city. "Dublin is by far the most important commercial andindustrial city in Ireland" (Pounds). Even though English is spoken widelythroughout Ireland, Irish is the first official language. The country isoverpopulated with children, and unemployed adults. The Nationalist flag ismade up of three vertical stripes. The first stripe is green and it representsthe Nationalist culture. The second stripe is white and it represents the peacethat should be between the two Irelands. The third stripe is orange and itrepresents the Unionist culture.
The second culture is Northern Ireland.Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom and has a population of 1 1/2-2million inhabitants. Northern Ireland citizens are considered Loyalists becausethey remained faithful to the rule of England. Belfast is the most importantcity in Northern Ireland. It is very industrially developed. "Two importantindustries developed during the 1800's were linens and shipbuilding" (Pounds).Northern Ireland is known to be a very intense area. There is a lot ofpublicized violence that occurs because of the divisions between groups in thelower classes. There is also a struggle over the political future of NorthernIreland, which creates hostility.
Economy, Government, andSocial Conditions
The republic has a mixed economy. "The constitution providesthat the state shall favor private initiative in industry, but, when necessaryprivate initiative is not forthcoming, the state itself undertakes essentialservices and promotes development services" (Britannica Online). Man
Names mentioned in this term paper
McGoldrick, Irish, Arsenberg, Delaney, Patrick, Henry II, McAllister,
Organizations mentioned in this term paper
Irish Roman Catholic Church, Government, British Parliament, Vikings, Senate,
Locations included in this report
a very paradoxical people, Republic of Ireland, the English, United States, Great Britain, United Kingdom, Ireland.â€œIn, Europe, Britain, Encyclopedia Britannica. 1998, Celticinfluence,
Health Conditions referenced in this essay
Companies talked about in this paper
Keywords referenced in this paper
Irish, Ireland, Britannica Online, Irish culture, Irish people, Irish history, Irish language, Expedia com, irish american, Irish Roman Catholic, Irish Republic, Irish Catholic, Northern Ireland, Irish jig, Gaelic Ireland, Celtic Ireland, Microsoft, United States, Catholic Church, poet, United Kingdom, famines, alcohol, George Bernard Shaw, Solon Kimball, a good man, Swap, Encyclopedia Britannica, Syracuse University Press, guilt feelings, potato, Great Britain, undaunted courage, north western europe, parliamentary democracy, stripe, 14th century, stone carvings, oral tradition, political parties, mixed economy, morally superior, Prime Minister, British rule, Middle Ages, great houses, private schools, artistic style, Oliver Goldsmith,