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Overall, the rights and status of women have improved considerably in the last century; however,
gender equality has recently been threatened within the last decade. Blatantly sexist laws and
practices are slowly being eliminated while social perceptions of "women's roles" continue to
stagnate and even degrade back to traditional ideals. It is these social perceptions that challenge the
evolution of women as equal on all levels. In this study, I will argue that subtle and blatant sexism
continues to exist throughout educational, economic, professional and legal arenas.
Women who carefully follow their expected roles may never recognize sexism as an oppressive
force in their life. I find many parallels between women's experiences in the nineties with Betty
Friedan's, in her essay: The Way We Were - 1949. She dealt with a society that expected women
to fulfill certain roles. Those roles completely disregarded the needs of educated and motivated
business women and scientific women. Actually, the subtle message that society gave was that the
educated woman was actually selfish and evil.
I remember in particular the searing effect on me, who once intended to be a psychologist, of a
story in McCall's in December 1949 called "A Weekend with Daddy." A little girl who lives a lonely
life with her mother, divorced, an intellectual know-it-all psychologist, goes to the country to spend a
weekend with her father and his new wife, who is wholesome, happy, and a good cook and
gardener. And there is love and laughter and growing flowers and hot clams and a gourmet cheese
omelet and square dancing, and she doesn't want to go home. But, pitying her poor mother typing
away all by herself in the lonesome apartment, she keeps her guilty secret that from now on she will
be living for the moments when she can escape to that dream home in the country where they know
"what life is all about." (See Endnote #1)
I have often consulted my grandparents about their experiences, and I find their historical
perspective enlightening. My grandmother was pregnant with her third child in 1949. Her work
experience included: interior design and modeling women's clothes for the Sears catalog. I asked
her to read the Friedan essay and let me know if she felt as moved as I was, and to share with me
her experiences of sexism. Her immediate reaction was to point out that "Betty Friedan was a
college educated woman and she had certain goals that never interested me." My grandmother,
though growing up during a time when women had few social rights, said she didn't experience
oppressive sexism in her life. However, when she describes her life accomplishments, I feel she has
spent most of her life fulfilling the expected roles of women instead of pursuing goals that were
mostly reserved for men. Unknowingly, her life was controlled by traditional, sexist values prevalent
in her time and still prevalent in the nineties.
Twenty-four years after the above article from McCall's magazine was written, the Supreme Court
decided whether women should have a right to an abortion in Roe v. Wade (410 U.S. 113 (1973)). I
believe the decision was made in favor of women's rights mostly because the court made a
progressive decision to consider the woman as a human who may be motivated by other things in
life than just being a mother. Justice Blackmun delivered the following opinion:
Maternity, or additional offspring, may force upon the woman a distressful life and future.
Psychological harm may be imminent. Mental and physical health may be taxed by child care.
There is also a distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child, and there is the
problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically and otherwise, to care for it.
In other cases, as in this one, the additional difficulties and conti
Quotes talked about in this paper
- she said that "women who succeed in male dominated fields are never mediocre - they are extraordinary achievers."
- Alice Brooks so eloquently described her experiences with inequality, stating, "the worse pain came from those little things people said or did to me."
- Hitler explained in Mein Kamph, "The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence."
Terminology referenced in this essay
Names talked about in this research paper
Alice Brooks, Betty Friedan, Roe, Wade, McCall, Mr. Paul E. Johnson, S. Goldman, Page, Jerry Falwell, Reagan, Howard Zinn, P.L. Fetzer, William Webster, Hitler, M. Marable, Joyce, Santa Clara, Mein Kamph,
Organizations talked about in this essay
Supreme Court, National Organization of Women, government, Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Justice Department, Congress, Reagan Administration,
Locations referenced in this essay
Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County,
Keywords mentioned in this essay
civil rights, affirmative action, endnotes, abortion, sexism, civil rights movement, Supreme Court, experience, Santa Clara County, Constitutional Law, Betty Friedan, a woman, social, gender equality, legal action, society, civil rights activist, essays, United States, social rights, Black And White, sexist, A Dream Deferred, the civil rights movement, selfish, young woman, court decision, this one, right away, my father, child care, Page, social pressure, a mother, Jerry Falwell, Mein Kamph, poor people, Justice Blackmun, professionals, government intervention, Howard Zinn, a story, pendulum swing, Reagan Administration, little girl, square dancing, Sears catalog, interior design, American culture, work experience,