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The DSM IV definition of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is:
A. Either (1) six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6
months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level; or (2) six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
B. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years.
C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g. at school [or work] and at home).
D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g. Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder) (Shin, 1998, pp.316-7).
Inattention can be observed in a person that displays these symptoms: often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities; often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities; often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly; often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace ( not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions); often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities; often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort ( such as schoolwork or homework); often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g. toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools); is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli; is often forgetful in daily activities.
Hyperactivity is defined by displaying these symptoms: often fidgets with hands and feet or squirms in seat; often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected; often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness); often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly; is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"; often talks excessively. Impulsivity is characterized by a person that: often blurts out answers before questions have been completed; often has difficulty awaiting turn; often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g. butts into conversations or games).
Since the 1940s, psychiatrists have applied various labels to children who are hyperactive and inordinately inattentive and impulsive. Such children have been considered to have "minimal brain dysfunction," "brain-injured child syndrome," "hyperkinetic reaction of childhood," "hyperactive child syndrome" and, most recently, "attention-deficit disorder." The frequent name changes reflect how uncertain researchers have been about the underlying causes of, and even how to precisely diagnose the disorder. There have been extensive studies done on the topic of ADHD, and many conclusions have been drawn from those studies.
ADHD is 5 to 7 times more common in boys than in girls; possibly because boys are genetically more prone to disorders of the nervous system. About 1% to 3% of the school-aged population has the full ADHD syndrome, without symptoms of other disorders. Another 5% to 10% of the school-aged population have a partial ADHD syndrome or one with other problems, such as anxiety and depression present. Another 15% to 20% of the school-aged population may show intermittent behaviors suggestive of ADHD. A diagnosis of ADHD is not warranted if these behaviors are situational, do not produce impairment at home and school, or are clearly identified as symptoms of other disorders (Barkley, 1990, p. 167). There is some suggestion clinically that asthma may be more prevalent in ADHD children. This disorder occurs in people of every level of intelligence, every culture, and every socioeconomic strata. However, it is much more commonly diagnosed in the United States than in Europe, and the s!
timulant medications are used vastly more in the United St
Terminology mentioned in this term paper
Names referenced in this report
Shin, Azar, G. J. LaHoste, Onroy, Ritalin, Judith L. Rapoport, R.A.,
Organizations talked about in this research material
University of Chicago, National Institute of Mental Health, Guilford Press,
Locations included in this paper
Barkley, United States, Europe, New York,
Health Conditions talked about in this research paper
ADHD, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, depression, anxiety, child syndrome, asthma, Schizophrenia,
Drug mentioned in this report
dopamine, Stimulants, Clonidine,
Companies referenced in this term paper
Keywords mentioned in this term paper
ADHD, symptoms, dopamine, behavior, prefrontal cortex, hyperactivity disorder, basal ganglia, dopamine receptor, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dopamine transporter, good behavior, syndromes, stimulant, DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Dopamine pathways, globus pallidus, behavioral, attention deficit disorder, Anxiety Disorder, child syndrome, Mood Disorder, caudate nucleus, Personality Disorder, Psychotic Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, conduct disorder, mental health, polygenic disorder, minimal brain dysfunction, social skills, adult, United States, These children, neuron, developmental, hyperactive child, brain functions, behavioral therapy, academic, tricyclic antidepressants, psychiatric disorders, gene, does not follow, Drug therapy, nervous system, schoolwork, Molecular Psychiatry, medications,