Similarity in several respects between discrete cases.
by analogy relies upon an inductive inference from the supposition that things.
are similar is certain known respects to the likelihood that they are also similar in.
some further unknown respect. .
Example: "Jennifer enjoys listening to the music of Beethoven,.
Mahler, and Bartok. Susan and Harold also like Beethoven, Mahler, and.
Bartok. Chris enjoys listening to Beethoven and Mahler. Therefore, Chris.
would probably like the music of Bartok, too." .
The degree of reliability achieved by such an argument depends upon the.
extent and nature of the similarities that hold between the instances in its.
premises and the new case in its conclusion. .
Also see DPM, Keith J. Holyoak and Paul Thagard, Allison Barnes and.
Paul Thagard, and Amelie Frost Benedikt.
The simplest variety of inductive reasoning is argument by analogy, which takes note.
of the fact that two or more things are similar in some respects and concludes that they are.
probably also similar in some further respect. Not every analogy is an argument; we.
frequently use such comparisons simply to explain or illustrate what we mean. But.
arguments by analogy are common, too. .
Suppose, for example, that I am thinking about buying a new car. I'm very likely to.
speak with other people who have recently bought new cars, noting their experiences with.
various makes, models, and dealers. If I discover that three of my friends have recently.
bought Geo Prizms from Burg and that all three have been delighted with their purchases,.
then I will conclude by analogy that if I buy a Geo Prizm from Burg, I will be delighted, too. .
Of course, this argument is not deductively valid; it is always possible that my new car.
may turn out to be an exception.